Ecological Regeneration

Winter, Lot 50 (2)_MaloneWinter Changes
A quirky attribute of the reeds is that they brown off in winter contrasting the pasture green.

An ecological regeneration plan has been developed under the Management Plan. In the first five year period approximately 70% of the property (11.2 ha) is being set aside for ecological regeneration and 30% (4.8 ha) will be used for pasture production and other purposes.
Preliminary management zones are:
1. Grassy Woodland Revegetation (4.5 ha)
2. Maslin/Malpas Creek Swamp and Edge (3.6 ha)
3. Drainage Lines – Sedge lands (1.3 ha)
4. Pastures (4.0 ha)
5. Western Boundary Revegetation (1.5 ha, reduce impact of Victor Harbor Road)
6. Northern Boundary Revegetation (0.60 ha, extend Branson Road reserve plantings)
7. Shed, Culture Shack, House Site and Access (0.35 ha)
8. Pepper Tree Corner (0.15 ha)

Contours, Lot 50_MaloneLot 50. Contours at 2 metre intervals

Autumn – Winter 2017-18
Planting continued in 2017 and 2018 and major structural planting is now substantially complete with about 3,500 seedlings planted to date. Future planting will be 150-200 seedlings per annum for infill and replacement of losses. Survival to date has been about 70% with varying degrees of species specific success.
Autumn – Winter 2016
Following on from the preliminary plantings in 2015, major revegetation has been undertaken in 2016 with 1,200 seedlings planted. The priority areas have been the swamp and swamp edge, grassy woodland establishment and the drainage lines – sedge beds. In partnership with Natural Resources Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges about 70 species appropriate for the  swamp and woodland areas have been identified and the majority of them have now been introduced. Several areas were selected for intensive weed management prior to the plantings.

Autumn – Winter 2015
The first planting commenced in 2015, mainly at the property entrance and on boundaries, the sandhill top and swamp edge, and included amenity and trial planting. Over 220 seedlings from over 20 species were planted with the focus on upper and mid-canopy species; Acacia paradoxa Kangaroo Thorn, Acacia pycnantha Golden Wattle, Allocasuarina verticillata Drooping Sheoak, Callitris gracilis Native Pine, Eucalyptus camaldulensis River Redgum, Eucalyptus microcarpa Grey Box, Eucalyptus porosa Mallee Box and Leptospermum lanigerum Silky (Woolly) Tea-tree.

Initial Plantings VHR 2015_Malone

Initial Plantings Pethick Rd 2015_MaloneInitial planting Drooping Sheoak and Golden wattle, autumn 2015

Spring – Summer 2015
An on-site vegetation survey was undertaken by officers from Natural Resource Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges at Willunga. Recommendations have been prepared on appropriate species for the revegetation program. Nearby roadside sites were visited to examine remnant vegetation, particularly the grasses as a seed source, as well as the California Road Wetland, a continuation of the Maslin Creek swamp, to view ‘edge’ species.

Examining remnant roadside vegetation near Lot 50_MaloneExamining remnant roadside vegetation near Lot 50, Oct 2015

Swamp Species_MaloneSwamp species near Lot 50, Oct 2015

Pasture Management
Animals have grazed this land for many thousands of years, before settlement predominantly wallabies and kangaroos, since settlement predominantly cattle, sheep and horses. Animal protein for human consumption has almost always been part of the (agri)cultural practice of the land. Whilst a mob of up to eight kangaroos visit regularly they are not now a food resource. Animal protein production will continue from the land but off-site. For the time being part of the land will produce hay for cattle consumption on Anacotilla Springs at Second Valley.
Anacotilla Springs is a beef production and ecological restoration project by Rob Malone and Pamela Wright. The property straddles the Anacotilla River and after a difficult and expensive fencing program, cattle have been excluded from the riparian zone for the first time in 150 years. Natural regeneration of the River Redgums is fantastic.

Cattle grazing, Anacotilla Springs_MaloneCattle grazing, Anacotilla Springs. River valley in mid background

Soil testing has been undertaken and advice sought from an agronomist as to fertiliser requirements and the pasture grass mix. A chicken manure pellet with appropriate trace elements was spread in early autumn.

On a fine autumn day (29 April), after the first rains had brought growth to pasture species and weeds alike, the potential pasture areas of Lot 50 were slashed. The aim; to promote new pasture growth for hay baling, provide ground mulch and knock down some weeds before seeding. Dan (from CL Contracting, McLaren Vale) spent seven hours on the tractor which gave the land a very different appearance.

Pasture slashing autumn_Malone 2015Pasture and weed Slashing, autumn 2015

Hay Harvesting
On a fine, late spring day (17 October) the first crop of hay was harvested from an area of about 2 ha producing 173 bales.

Hay Raking, Lot 50, Oct, 2015_MaloneHay raking, Oct, 2015

Hay bales, Lot 50, 2015_MaloneHay bales, Oct, 2015

Hay cartage, Lot 50_MaloneOff to Anacotilla, Nov.2015

Weed Management
Weed control is a major and immediate land management issue. About twenty-five weed species have been identified to date. Various forms of weed control are underway;  slashing, weed eating, spraying, grubbing and hand removal.
As of April 2016 the whole of the property (except the swamp and some sedge beds) had been slashed requiring 25 hours of heavy duty tractor slashing, supported by over 150 hours of ‘walk behind’ slashing, weed eating and spraying. The weed control has also enabled the lay of the land to be better seen. Many years of dried/dead plant material shaded and obscured the ground.

Into the tuff stuff, Lot 50_MaloneInto the tough stuff, Nov. 2015

Targeted species include Wild artichoke/Scotch Thistle Cynara cardunculus, Fat Hen Chenopodium album and Three corner jack Emex australis along with the woody weeds Olive Olea europaea, African Boxthorn Lycium ferocissimum and Apple of Sodom Solanum linnaeanum. Trial eradication of Phalaris Phalaris aquatica on the swamp edge has also been implemented.

Wild artichoke_Malone Wild artichoke/Scotch Thistle Cynara cardunculus

Woody Weeds
Olives, boxthorn and dog roses straddling the Branson Road boundary and in the road reserve are being removed in collaboration with the City of Onkaparinga. The road reserve is being revegetated as a woodland with allowance for an access track to Lot 50-Kanyanyapilla. As of October 2018 this work has been substantially progressed. The stumps of the big olives provide interesting ‘sculptural forms’.

Small Gains
The Apple of Sodom infestations have been cut back and grubbed out. Just have to monitor for any new plants from the seed stock. One down …

Apple of Sodom_MaloneApple of Sodom Solanum linnaeanum